Monday, March 13, 2017

Four Men Who Created a Country by M. R.

Joseph Ellis  is an American historian and professor whose work focuses on the lives and times of the founders of the United States of America . He is a winner of the Pulitzer. He’s written nine books. One of them is The Second Founding: Four Men Who created a Country. He taught at the University of Massachusetts, in Mount Holyoke and West Point.
Joseph explains that America was heading in the wrong direction after the war. George Washington had fifty-five thousand soldiers fighting in the war. After winning the war we went into forty million dollars in debt. Not only were we in debt but we were made fun of by the British empire and Jonathan Adams is mortified because he represents a government that doesn’t exists. This is told to John Jay in a letter written by Abigail Adams.
He explains that the average American doesn’t care what goes around in their surrounding
Four men made the transition from confederation to a nation, they are George Washington, Alexander Hamilton, John Jay and James Madison. There were two men that also supported and help but are not as recognized as Washington, Hamilton, Jay and Madison. Theirs names are Robert Morris and Gouverner Morris and Thomas Jefferson. One of the things that this political group diagnosed was the systematic dysfunctions under the articles, manipulated the political process to force the calling of the constitutional convention, they also set the agenda in Philadelphia, they also attempted to successfully orchestrate the debates and ratified conventions and drafted the Bill of Rights. This is a great political leadership in American history.  Jay is one of the Founding Fathers that is not the acknowledge. He becomes the equivalent of Secretary of State during the government under the articles. He negotiates the Jay Treaty which is the most important diplomatic negotiation in the early republic.  He also becomes the first Chief Justice. When Washington becomes president and he decides on his cabinet he thinks of Jay first, he wants to give him any position of his liking. The reason why John Jay was not acknowledged was because his papers were not published like the other founders.
Congress notices problems when states establish tariff against each other. The Annapolis convention fails because only five states show. At the end of the meeting Hamilton writes to Congress and says, that everyone should meet again to fix all the problems. He wants to have a new Convention meet. Hamilton challenges the covenant. Now Jay, Hamilton and Madison are in fear and write to Washington and they tell him that they are headed towards Anarchy. Everyone want to recruit Washington; however, Washington is in retirement and wants nothing to do with it. Now Washington, he is closer to the ending than the beginning. Back then males lived to be fifty and that’s how old Washington was at the time. He was basically planning his death he wanted to die at Mount Vernon underneath his vine and fig tree.
Madison writes to him in a way that it becomes persuasive. Madison and Washington are radicals they like change. Madison convinces Washington to join the Virginia Delegation and the only condition Washington gives him is that they’ll go for total change. Washington is a Nationalist.
The Virginia Plan is Madison argument for replacing the current articles with a fundamental government. When this is agreed, this is of great advantage for them. At the meeting, there is two ghost that is never talked about, one is Monarchy and Slavery. The words slavery is never mentioned in the Constitution. The phrase used for slaves was that species of property. This situation is in bedded in the South.  Anyone that wanted to remove or mention slavery was removed. Washington and Virginia were out of it because they wanted slavery to end. However, they sold the slaves because they felt it would make them more money. They thought slavery would die by itself. Madison is known as the Father of the Constitution; he is the one that makes most of the changes.
Gourvernor Morris is another Founding Father that does not get recognized as well. He is best known as womanizer; Ellis compares him to Trump. He is the man with the peg leg. Houdon makes Washington’s statue using Gouvernor Morris torso as a model, since they are similar in body frame and they are both tall. Gouvernor Morris is the one that talks more in the convention, he speaks more than Madison. Morris is the first to be against slavery he refers to it as medieval. In 1787 they form a committee called Style and Morris is in charge, he puts together many notes and that is how the he writes the Constitution. All the other states would like to put their input in and Madison agrees, he has every state vote on the amendments and that is how their input is incorporated in the Bill of Rights.
We heard the voice of Ellis explaining the important role that each Founding Father had. He also explained how the Constitution was written and how slavery and monarchy were two ghost that were never discussed.   He also explained how the Bill of Rights came about.
In class, we discussed the role that every Founding Father played to build America. Some are famously known and the other two that were not acknowledged.  Some of my classmates were disgusted in how slavery was to referred to.

Questions still remain:   If the founding Fathers worked together to make a difference, why didn’t they end slavery sooner?